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Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management

Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management research group’s research incorporates a range of research areas with the focus on aging human resources, imprinting, authentic leadership, innovative performance management, CSR and employee motivation, work engagement, organizational learning capabilities, education. The group members’ research has appeared in scholarly journals such as Journal of Vocational Behavior or The International Journal of Human Resource Management and International Journal of Manpower. Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management researchers are active members in international projects (e.g., EWORLD, COST Action). Since 2007 the group is actively engaged in comparative HRM research and is an active member of Cranfield Network on International Human Resource Management (CRANET). Our researchers also participate in Global Work Design project (since 2015). Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management group researchers have experience in attracting and successfully implementing grants and actively pursue research collaborations with Alberta School of Business, BI Norwegian Business School, Georgia Southwestern State University, Illinois Institute of Technology, Imperial College London, Institute for Technology Assessment and System Analysis (ITAS) of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Monfort College of Business, Technical University of Denmark, Vienna University of Economics and Management, and others.
 
Sustainable human resources and diversity management
Workforces in most industrialized countries are ageing rapidly, largely due to falling birth rates, rising life expectancy, the increase in the regular retirement age and encountering various forms of disability (OECD, 2006; Ross, 2010; Toosi, 2012; WHO, 2011). Employability and performance of representatives of vulnerable groups of society, such as persons of older age or those with disability, require some specific HR practices (Kooij et al., 2013; Schur et al., 2014) which are related to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Responsible HRM, Sustainable HRM and other concepts, which ISM researchers have studied. Sustainable HRM (SHRM) is still at pioneering phase (Ehnert and Harry, 2012; Ehnert, 2014; Kramar, 2014). SHRM is built on synthesis effect (Mariappanadar, 2014) where organizations can improve organizational outcomes (for example financial outcomes) through HRM as well as reduce the harm on employees, because two polarities (financial outcomes and employee wellbeing) are not mutually exclusive, but they are mutually reinforcing (Mariappanadar and Kramar, 2014). Thus, the function of SHRM practices is the joint facilitation of organizational goals and employee long-term well-being. ISM scholars’ research focuses on diversity and HRM in different sectors, especially in healthcare, as well as different contexts, concentrating particular attention on the context of the Industry 4.0 and emerging technologies. We advance theory of individual adaptability by revealing factors related to individual adaptability during a life-span. ISM research focuses on the antecedents of adaptability at the micro-individual and meso organizational level which might shape, promote and/or hinder how and why individuals, and especially older individuals (i.e., aged 50+), can and actually do successfully adapt to changes at work. ISM research enriches the existing literature of HRM by providing further advancement of SHRM theory, which is still in the initial phase, by revealing emerging human resource management practices dedicated to sustainable management of disadvantaged groups of society.  We also contribute to job design theories by identifying changes in the job design related with emerging technologies, as well as the role of SHRM in the context of the Industry 4.0 and emerging technologies.
In the area we seek to answer the following questions:
• How can organizations enhance the employment of disadvantaged groups of society?
• How to integrate disabled employees into the workforce? What is the role of SHRM in this process?
• How may employees at different life and/or career stage better adapt to the changes at work?
• How to sustain performance of employees during life span? What is the role of SHRM in this process?
• How do organizational and work design factors affect work‐related outcomes (motivation, performance, intention to leave the organization, intention to emigrate) of health care professionals at different life stages.
• How have emerging technologies changed work design in organizations? How do emerging technologies affect employees and their attitudinal and behavioural outcomes?
• How may Human Resource Management neutralize potential negative effects and demands of emerging technologies and ensure long-term employee well-being? What is the role of SHRM in this process?

ISM publications in the area:

  • Kazlauskaitė, R.; Bučiūnienė I. (2010) Exploring the link between CSR formalisation and responsible HRM practices. 11th International HRM Conference: 9-12 June 2010, Aston Business School.
  • Bučiūnienė, I.; Kazlauskaitė, R. (2010) Disclosing the meaning of responsible human resource mangement. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference on Marketing and Business Strategies for Central&Eastern Europe. December 2-4, Viena Austria, p. 51-60.
  • Kazlauskaitė, R., Bučiūnienė, I. (2011). Responsible human resource management and its outcomes in the private and public sector organisations. Proceedings of 7th International Conference of the Dutch HRM network “Evidence based HRM“, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
  • Kazlauskaitė, R., Bučiūnienė, I. (2011). Attitudinal and Behavioural Outcomes of Responsible Human Resource Management. Proceedings of International Conference of Global HRM, Bar Ilan University, Israel.
  • Bučiūnienė, I., & Kazlauskaitė, R. (2012). The linkage between HRM, CSR and performance outcomes. Baltic Journal of Management, 7(1), 5-24.
  • Goštautaitė, Bernadeta; Bučiūnienė, Ilona. Age, task significance, and performance. 8th biennial international conference of the dutch HRM network "‘H’ versus ‘R’ in HRM", Leuven, Belgium, 2013, 14-15 November, p. 1-3.
  • Kazlauskaitė, R., Bučiūnienė, I., & Goštautaitė, B. (2014). Diversity-related human resource management and performance linkage: does acting responsibly help organisations perform better? In 13th International HRM Conference, Cracow, Poland (pp. 1-23). Cracow.
  • Poškienė, E. (2014) Sustainability perspective in the HRM and organizational performance linkage. 13th International Human Resource Management Conference (IHRM) Uncertainly in a Flattening World: challenges for IHRM, Krakow, Poland. Library of ISM University of Management and Economics, reg. Nr. 05-10-52, p. 215-216.
  • Kazlauskaite, R., Ligthart, P., Buciuniene, I., and Vanhala, S. (2013). „Corporate Social Responsibility and Responsible Human Resource Management in the CEE and Nordic countries“. In E. Parry, E. Stavrou-Costea and M. Lazarova (Eds.) Global Trends in HRM. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 54-77.
  • Poškienė, E., & Kazlauskaitė, R. (2015). Translating sustainability principles into HRM. In Annual 15th EURAM conference, 17-20 June (pp. 1-33). Varšuva: Kozminski university.
  • Aušvicaitė, V., Bučiūnienė, I., Kazlauskaitė, R. (2015). Corporate Social Responsibility at Kraft Foods Lietuva: to be or not to be socially responsible? In (Ed.) J. Poór and A. D. Engle, Internationalisation and Globalisation in Human Resource Management – Focus on Central and Eastern Europe, Szent István University, Gödöllő, Hungary.
  • Goštautaitė, B., & Bučiūnienė, I. (2015). The role of work characteristics in enhancing older employees' performance: evidence from a post-Soviet country. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(6), 757-782.
  • Goštautaitė, B., & Bučiūnienė, I. (2015). Work engagement during life-span: the role of interaction outside the organization and task significance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 89, 109-119.
  • Kazlauskaite, R., Pupieniene, I., Buciuniene, I. (2016). Employability of older workers in a changing labor market: the case of a post-Soviet country. In H. Merchant (Ed.) Handbook of Research on Ememrging Markets. Edward Elgar Publishing.
  • Goštautaitė, B., Kazlauskaite, R., Buciuniene, I. (2018). Customer reactions to service employeess with disability: A field quasi-experiment. Conference proceedings. 78th Annual meeting of Academy of Management. Chicago, USA.
Leadership and organizational development
Studies of leadership as a complex phenomenon became prominent as a response to the challenges of modern societies and to volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous environment. Leadership research has grown exponentially in the last decade, as the focus of the research in management field has shifted from managers to leaders and leadership. Traditionally, it was the leader’s personality and leadership styles, as well as general leadership processes, which attracted the attention of scholars. Recently, the number of new leadership theories has grown, advancing the field with relational approach, looking into the dynamics of follower and leader outcomes within complex systems and change processes. Such crucial characteristics of emergent relational leadership as authenticity, servantism, morality are on the debates agenda. ISM researchers contribute in these studies in seeking to answer the question of how a leadership style affects organizational behavior. Alonderienė and Majauskaitė (2016) investigate the relationship of leadership style and job satisfaction, while Reardon et al. (2013) focus on the relationship with employee organizational commitment. Vaiginiene et al. (forthcoming) analyze leadership development needs. Barvydienė (2015) focuses on the charisma of a leader. Miniotaitė and Bučiūnienė (2013) as well as Petkevičiūtė, Barvydienė and Šurpikienė (2018) perform the research on authentic leadership. Pilkienė, Morkūnaitė and Miniotaitė (2017) investigate servant leadership. The emerging trend of leadership as a process is covered by Muller, Alonderienė, Pilkienė, Chmieliauskas and Šimkonis. This group of researchers seek to disclose the process of balanced leadership in project-based organizations, how balanced leadership occurs, how it is governed and how it is transferred.
In the area we seek to answer the following questions:
• How do different leadership styles affect organizational behavior?
• How does authentic, servant and balanced leadership shape organizational behavior?
• What is the relationship between leadership style, job satisfaction and organizational commitment?
• What is the dynamics of follower and leader outcomes within complex systems and change processes?
• How do different leadership styles affect organizational behavior?
• How does authentic, servant and balanced leadership shape organizational behavior?
• What is the relationship between leadership style, job satisfaction and organizational commitment?
• What is the dynamics of follower and leader outcomes within complex systems and change processes?

ISM publications in the area:

  • Miniotaitė, A., & Bučiūnienė, I. (2013). Explaining authentic leadership work outcomes from the perspective of self-determination theory. Organizacijų vadyba: sisteminiai tyrimai = Management of organizations: systematic research, 65, 63-75.
  • Barvydienė V. (2015).  Lyderio charisma. Monograph. Kaunas, Technologija. P.251.
  • Alonderienė, R., & Majauskaitė, M. (2016). Leadership style and job satisfaction in higher education institutions. International Journal of Educational Management, 140-164.
  • Pilkienė, M., Morkūnaitė, J., & Miniotaitė, A. (2017). The relationship between school principals and teachers servant leadership. In New trends and issues proceedings on humanities and social sciences (4, 3, pp. 114-122). Budapest: SciencePark Research, Organization & Counseling.
  • Petkeviciute, N., Barvydiene, V., & Surpikiene, N. (2018). Authentic Leadership: Leader-Follower Relationship Genesis. Transformations in Business & Economics, 17(1), 83-99.
  • Vaiginienė, E., Alonderienė, R., Pilkienė, M., Ramonienė, L., Savanevičienė, A., & Stankevičiūtė, Ž. (2018). Management and Leadership Development Needs: The Case of Lithuania. In Business and Society (pp. 115-135). Springer, Cham.
  • Pilkienė, M., Alonderienė, R., Chmieliauskas, A., Šimkonis, S., & Müller, R. (2018). The governance of horizontal leadership in projects. International Journal of Project Management, 36(7), 913-924.
Innovations in OB/HRM
As the environments and organizational processes becomes more complex, rapidly changing and challenging, the key priority of every organization is to maximize the innovative potentials. Value creating innovation initiatives tend to depend heavily on employees’ knowledge, skills, abilities and work behavior. Innovative work behavior is considered to be the most important factor in addressing emerging issues and sustaining competitive advantage. Consistent with this, there is a growing body of management literature on the determinants and key influences of innovative work behavior and innovations in human resource management. At ISM we seek to answer such questions as how e-HRM creates value for multinational companies? What is the impact of perceived procedural and interactional justice on employee innovative work behavior? What is the relationship between artificial intelligence systems implementation with leadership behaviours for innovation, knowledge management and individual innovative work behaviour? What is the relationship between HRM innovation and knowledge management?
In the area we seek to answer the following questions:
• How does e-HRM create value for multinational companies?
• What is the impact of perceived procedural and interactional justice on employee innovative work behavior?
• What is the relationship between artificial intelligence systems implementation with leadership behaviors for innovation, knowledge management and individual innovative work behavior?
• What is the relationship between HRM innovation and knowledge management?

ISM publications in the area:

  • Bučiūnienė, I., & Škudienė, V. (2008). Impact of leadership styles on employees' organizational commitment in Lithuanian manufacturing companies. South East European Journal of Economics and Business, 3(2), 57-66.
  • Clinebell, S., Skudiene, V., Trijonyte, R., & Reardon, J. (2013). Impact of leadership styles on employee organizational commitment. Journal of Service Science, 6(1), 139.
  • Štangej, O., & Škudienė, V. (2016). The role of familial trust in the leader-member exchange. Organizations and Markets in Emerging Economies, 1(13), 53-73.
  • Skudiene, V., Buciuniene, I., Gabrielaityte, U. (2018). Perceived organizational innovativeness and knowledge management: case of global business organizations. Proceedings of 15th International Human Resource Management Conference proceedings, Madrid.
  • Skudiene, V., Kvederaviciene-Augutyte, I., Demesko, N., Suchockis, A. (2018). Exploring innovative work behavior and leadership relationship: moderating effect of locus of control. Organizations and Markets of Emerging Economies, 9 (1), 21-40.
  • Skudiene, V., Kvederaviciene-Augutyte I., Domasheva, U. (2018). Artificial intellingence systems, leadership, knowledge management and innovative work behaviour. In the monograph “Management of innovative development the economic entities”, Vol. 1, Przeworsk, Poland, pp.71-85.
Education and development​
The standard educational topics involve improving efficiencies in higher education administration, more efficient/effective dissemination of information, and improving the understanding of knowledge and skills. While these topics still remain relevant, the current focus in Education and development research area is on adjusting and integrating new technologies into education and professional development. More specifically, ISM research concentrates on 1. Experiential education – moving beyond understanding the information to the ability to apply the information in a real time context; 2. Creativity and entrepreneurship development. 3. Globalization of education and expanding the cultural understanding; and 4. Improving the management of educational institutions. Furthermore, with the last decade changes in technology, the area of education and development research has expanded to focus on the mode of education. This includes implementing efficiencies in technology without losing the acculturation and maturation aspects of the traditional education. Particular current topics of interest for ISM researchers include: 1. Flipped classrooms, 2. Online/distance education, and 3. Blended learning formats. Our research focuses on analyzing how to improve the education of our stakeholders, increase the efficiency of higher education and how technology can improve the effectiveness and efficiency of education to all of our stakeholders.
In the area we seek to answer the following questions:
• How can we improve the education of our stakeholders?
• How can we increase the efficiency of higher education?
• How can technology improve the effectiveness and efficiency of education to all of our stakeholders?

ISM publications in the area:

  • Reardon, J.; McCorkle, D.; Auruškevičienė, V. (2012). Online courses: innovative education channel or 21st century correspondence course. Proceedings 6th INTED 2012 international technology, education and development conference, 2012, March 5th-7th, Valencia, Spain, p. 5588-5593.
  • Skudiene, V., Auruskeviciene, V., Reardon, J. (2016). Fostering business students’ creativity using arts based education: in an interdisciplinary approach, INTED2016 Proceedings,  10th International Technology, Education and Development Conference, 7-9 March, 2016, Valencia, Spain, pp. 5698-5704.
  • Alonderiene, R., & Majauskaite, M. (2016). Leadership style and job satisfaction in higher education institutions. International Journal of Educational Management, 30(1), 140-164.
Researchers: